The new structure of the strands for the World PM congress Technical Programme was discussed and approved by the EPMI Working Group to reflect a three-dimensional classification of the possible manuscripts:
By process (powder production and consolidation technologies)
The applicant in the abstracts submission system will decide, considering the content of the proposed paper, to which classification criterion the paper should first be subjected, i.e. the primary classification. For instance, if the paper is strongly oriented towards discussing an application, like when presenting one or more case studies, the author should prefer to choose among the “Applications” subtopics which is the one that best fits, like “Automotive”, or “Biomedical”. On the other hand, if the paper is about the optimization of a process, for instance Binder Jetting, and the material or the application side of it are less important, it should be firstly classified as “Consolidation technologies” and then as “AM sinter based technologies”. As another example, the development of a new atomized nickel-based alloy powder will be best in the category of “Materials” and “Non ferrous” or “High temperature materials” if the focus is on the alloy properties, or in “Powder production” if the focus is in the atomizing process.
Using multiple keywords, the authors can then characterize also the secondary and further classification for their paper.
Main processes used in powder production such as water or gas atomisation, solid state reduction, electrolysis, mechanical comminution (also mechanical alloying and high energy milling) and chemical. Special methods under vacuum used for some special alloys like titanium or some Inconel series. Post processes of drying, sieving, packaging and others.
Compaction and Sintering
The subtopic concerns the Press & Sinter process, for any material, from ferrous to non-ferrous, hardmetals, diamond tools, metal-ceramic composites and ceramics. As a non-exhaustive list, abstracts in this category may refer to powder pressing (die filling, fundamentals, modelling, lubricants, die wall lubrication, new powder compaction concepts, pressing of complex geometry parts, warm compacting) , other shaping methods based on pressing (advances in press technology, alternative shaping technologies, unilateral pressing, powder forging), and sintering (atmospheres and atmosphere controls, dimensional control, fundamentals, modelling, induction sintering, infiltration, microwave sintering, new furnace concepts, reactive sintering and Self Propagating High temperature Sintering, or SHS, sinter hardening).
MIM (Metal Injection Moulding), and more generally PIM (Powder Injection Moulding) as a process is comprising several process steps and is effective on a variety of materials for a very wide spectrum of applications. Thus, papers in this subtopic can include subjects like feedstock development, preparation and characterisation, mould design and fabrication, injection moulding theory, practice and characterisation, debinding theory, practice and characterisation, sintering theory, practice and characterisation, new PIM processes, PIM post processing, PIM economic considerations.
Hot Isostatic Pressing for the production of complex and highly specified components made from a wide range of metals and/or ceramics. A post process in Additive Manufacturing to densify, eliminate porosities and improve strength. HIP components are currently being used in a number of industry sectors that have highly demanding environments for example: aerospace, offshore, energy and medical.
Field Assisted Sintering Technologies
These technologies include a range of special techniques that are capable of consolidating powder bodies in non-conventional way, using plasma- or current-enhanced sintering kinetics, normally in combination with applied uniaxial pressure, like spark plasma sintering, capacitor discharge sintering, and others.
AM beam based technologies
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) and Electron beam welding (EBM) for various metal powders including multi-materials. CAD & Simulation Methods, Post processes of support structure removal.
AM sinter based technologies
Binder Jetting, Material Jetting, Screen Printing for metals / ceramics. CAD & Simulation Methods, Post processes of debinding and sintering.
Other consolidation technologies
in this category are included all other powder shaping technologies that have not been listed in the previous topics. for example, powder extrusion, tape casting, gel casting, spray forming, powder coatings, etcetera.
Ferrous materials are quite obviously all compositions where Fe is the main chemical constituent, and the main phase in the material is one of the phases possible for metallic Fe. These materials can be produced by Press&Sinter, MIM, HIP, AM, and other shaping techniques.
Non ferrous materials
These materials may contain Fe but not as main constituent. Among common families we can list Al alloys, Co alloys, Ni alloys, Cu alloys, Ti alloys, Zr alloys, Mg alloys, Mo alloys, W alloys. It might include also materials that are clearly non-metallic, but those would normally be best classified in other categories like hard materials, functional materials or high temperature materials.
Materials whose density is below that of steels are normally considered “light”: that includes in particular Al alloys, Mg alloys, and also Ti alloys, and others. Outside metallic compositions, intermetallics (from the Fe-Al or Ni-Al systems, with additions, or others) could be included in this subtopic. Ceramic additions are also usually decreasing the overall density, so metal matrix composites could be included here if the goal is a lower density.
High temperature materials
Although being a part of Functional Materials, these are a well-established family of alloys that find application in high temperature-intensive applications like aerospace and energy, but also automotive and others. Typically, these include Ni alloys, Oxide Dispersed Steels (ODS), refractory metals, high entropy alloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and other high temperature resistant materials.
Functional materials mostly make use of a distinct physical property they bring into a component, such as magnetism, caloric effects, electronic conductivity, and others. They may also enable manufacturing processes in the form of temporary agents, due to chemical, rheological or other physical behaviours. As a non-exhaustive list, Functional Materials include electrical and electronic materials, multiscaled and functionally graded materials, shape memory alloys, temperature management materials, PM magnetic materials (hard magnetic materials, soft magnetic materials, special soft magnetic composites), porous materials (cellular materials, filters, metal foams).
Hard metals, cermets and diamond tools
WC based hardmetals, Ti(C,N) based cermets; Engineering ceramics, Superhard CBN and PCD and monocrystalline diamond impregnated tools. Diamond Tools, PM Tool Steels, Consolidation (including AM and MIM), Processing and Finishing Technologies, Raw Materials, Powders and Binders. Surface Modification Technologies including Coating. Modelling and Simulation, Chemical and Mechanical Post Processing.
Other PM materials
In case a material is produced with powders but none of the above categories can be considered suitable, this is the subtopic to choose.
Dental and orthopedic surgical implants, surgery devices, mechanical equipment, Hearing aids, Bio-tissue implants, Nanoscale medicine.
Jet systems, Gearboxes, satellite antennas, impellers, fuel nozzles & systems, guide vanes, turbine blades, Air foils
Spare parts, Functional prototyping, interior parts, Embedded sensors, engine and transmission components,
Fuel Burners, Heat Exchangers, Compressor parts, Oil Refinery piping systems, Offshore sub-sea systems, Steam and gas turbine components.
Other applications of PM
Jewellery, Musical and Sports instruments, toys, customised products.
Test and evaluation
This subtopic will include all papers referring to testing and evaluation of powders and powder metallurgy parts, comprising equipment, methods, practice, property databases, etc.
Secondary operations papers, like those concerning deformation, coining, sizing, grinding, machining, coating, thermal treatments, and others, especially when not specifically for one PM process but with transversal applicability, or when the paper is anyway focused on the operation itself, could be placed under this subtopic.
Design and modelling
Papers addressing the design of PM parts, as an alternative to placing them in the respective process strands and subtopics, can be grouped here. Similarly, papers on modelling of the process and of material properties can be entered in this subtopic.
Life Cycle Analysis
Papers focusing on sustainability of Powder Metallurgy, of specific processes or of specific materials, by using Life Cycle Analysis or similar techniques, are grouped in this subtopic.
With the continuous extension of computer-based processes as an aid to better production, this subtopic will collect all papers focusing on real time process monitoring, process control, Big Data applications in PM, Industry 4.0, digital twins, computer based traceability, etcetera.
Other tools for improving PM
If the paper describes a new tool for improving PM, that is new or anyway not plausibly included in the other subtopics in this strand, it will be included here.